Folna kislina

V nosečnosti je ne sme primanjkovati

Za folno kislino najpogosteje slišimo v povezavi z nosečnostjo. Včasih so jo imenovali vitamin B9, danes se najpogosteje uporablja še izraz »folat«. Gre za esencialna mikrohranila oziroma različne, kemijsko sorodne snovi, ki v telesu sodelujejo v mnogih procesih. Med najpomembnejše sodi vloga, ki jo imajo pri razvoju zarodka. Ugotovljeno je namreč, da pomanjkanje folne kisline pri nosečnicah lahko povzroči tveganje za velike zaplete.  

Dobimo jo s hrano

Folne kisline  naše telo samo ne proizvaja, vanj jo moramo vnašati s prehrano. Najdemo jo v glavnem v listnati zelenjavi, denimo v solati, kreši, regratu, poru, zelju, stročnicah, cvetači in podobnih zelenih rastlinah, ter v žitaricah, rižu, testeninah, kruhu, pa tudi jajcih, mesu, ribah in mleku.

Povečana potreba v nosečnosti

Strokovnjaki ocenjujejo, da je vnos folatov v povprečju veliko premajhen, v Sloveniji naj bi otroci in najstniki s hrano dobili le 50 % priporočenih količin. Odrasel človek sicer potrebuje 200 mikrogramov folata, ki jih brez večjih težav tudi dobimo, če se le prehranjujemo uravnoteženo in zdravo. V nosečnosti pa se dnevna potreba poveča  - celo na 550 mikrogramov. Enako velja tudi za čas dojenja.

Vpliv na razvoj plodu

Žal pa danes zaužijemo preveč predelane hrane, zelenjave, ki dolgo stoji v hladilnicah, nekatere skupine živil manjkajo v dnevni prehrani. Pomanjkanje folne kisline se pokaže kot povečana stopnja delitve rdečih in belih krvnih celic in kot megaloblastna anemija, pri kateri je zmanjšana sposobnost krvi za prenos kisika Če folne kisline primanjkuje v času pred zanositvijo in v nosečnosti, obstaja verjetnost, da bo to škodovalo razvoju plodu. Med največja tveganja sodijo napake pri razvoju živčevja – živčna (nevralna) cev (Spina bifida) se ne zapre pravilno, lahko pride do razcepa neba ali srčnih anomalij. Dodajanje folne kisline dokazano kar za 70 odstotkov zmanjšuje možnosti za okvaro nevralne cevi.

Že v času planiranja zanositve (dva do tri mesece) in med nosečnostjo je torej priporočljivo poleg zdrave prehrane folno kislino tudi dodajati.

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